Overview Clinical Approach Lung Function Testing Diagnostic Imaging Airway Sampling Pathophysiology Treatment Prognosis Pulmonary Hypertension What to do when the dog is still coughing? Summary References
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, Volume 44, Issue 1, January 2014, Pages 107-116. Author: Elizabeth Rozanski
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Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in cats can be due to bacteria, parasites, fungi and viruses. This review details the practical investigation of these infections and highlights specific therapy where possible. The aim is to avoid the all-too-frequent temptation in practice to treat cats with lower respiratory tract signs empirically for feline bronchial disease (FBD)/asthma. This is potentially hazardous as immunosuppressive therapy for FBD/asthma could exacerbate disease due to a LRTI. Empirical treatment of suspected LRTI is also difficult to recommend given the wide range of potential pathogens.
Making a clinical ante-mortem diagnosis of LRTI in a cat can be challenging. Consistent historical, clinical, haematological and radiographic abnormalities are often lacking and findings may be non-specific. Astute clinical acumen, thorough investigation and high quality laboratory analysis are usually required for a diagnosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage, if feasible, and tests for lungworm should be routine in cats with lower respiratory tract signs. Lung fine needle aspiration may be useful in cases of diffuse or nodular pulmonary disease. Histopathology is rarely employed in ante-mortem investigations.
The authors have reviewed a substantial body of literature to provide information on many of the reported bacterial, parasitic, fungal and viral pathogens, including some that occur in Asia. Attention has been given to specific therapy for each pathogen, with evidence-based comments when there is a deviation from routine recommendations.
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery - Vol 13(5); May 2011, pp 313-332. Authors: Susan F. Foster, Patricia Martin
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Flexible endoscopy is a valuable diagnostic approach to the upper and lower respiratory tract, because it allows direct visualization and sample collection. Techniques requiring a range of specialized equipment and varying levels of experience have been developed to access and evaluate each anatomic region. Familiarity with appropriate indications for each procedure and normal appearance, cytology, and culture results from each region will enhance diagnostic success.
Respiratory acidosis: Metabolic compensation in respiratory acidosis: Acute Respiratory Acidosis, Chronic Respiratory Acidosis Causes of respiratory acidosis Diagnosis and clinical features of respiratory acidosis Treatment of respiratory acidosis
Respiratory alkalosis: Metabolic compensation in respiratory alkalosis: Acute Respiratory Alkalosis, Chronic Respiratory Alkalosis Causes of respiratory alkalosis Diagnosis and clinical features of respiratory alkalosis Treatment of respiratory alkalosis
Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders in Small Animal Practice (Fourth Edition), 2012; Chapter 11, pp 287-301. Authors: Rebecca A. Johnson, Helio Autran de Morais
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